Kumpulan perintah terminal linux yang sering digunakan





#Add a user
sudo adduser USER_NAME

#Delete a user
sudo deluser USER_NAME

#Change user password
sudo passwd USER_NAME

#Changes user fullname, office number, office extension, and home phone number information.
sudo chfn USER_NAME

#Display user information
finger USER_NAME

#Temporarily prevent a user from logging in
sudo usermod -L USER_NAME

#Revoke the operation above
sudo usermod -U USER_NAME

#Add a user to admin group
sudo usermod -G admin -a USER_NAME

#Clear Bash history
history -c

#Display Linux distributor's ID
lsb_release -is

#Display Linux release number
lsb_release -rs

#Display Linux code name
lsb_release -cs

#Display machine hardware name
uname -m

#List all PCI devices, such as display card and ethernet card.
lspci

#Reclaim memory which stores pagecache, dentries and inodes
echo 3 > /proc/sys/vm/drop_caches

#Display a list of modules in the Linux Kernel
lsmod

#List USB devices
lsusb -v

#Display the status of ethernet card
sudo ethtool eth0

#List hardware
sudo lshw

#List harddisk partitions
sudo fdisk -l

#Display SATA harddisk parameters
sudo hdparm -I /dev/sda

#Display disk space usage
df -h

#Display file/folder space usage
du -bsh FOLDER_NAME

#Display amount of free and used memory
free

#Display processes

ps -e

#Display a tree of processes
pstree

#Display processes dynamically
top

#Terminate a process with a given process id
sudo kill -9 PROCESS_ID

#Terminate all processes with a given name
sudo killall PROCESS_NAME

#List files which are opened by a given process
lsof -p PROCESS_ID
lsof -c PROCESS_NAME

#List processes which opened a given file
lsof FILE_NAME

#List processes which are using port 80

lsof -i :80

#Configure an ADSL connection
sudo pppoeconf

#Starts up ADSL connections
sudo pon

#Shuts down ADSL connections
sudo poff

#Display MAC of a given IP address
arping IP_ADDRESS

#Display NetBIOS name of a givdn IP address
nmblookup -A IP_ADDRESS

#Display IP address and MAC
ifconfig -a

#Display route
netstat -rn

#Set MAC of ethernet interface
sudo ifconfig eth0 hw ether 00:11:22:33:44:55

#Display information of a domain name
whois example.com

#Display the network path to a given host
tracepath example.com

#Request an IP address from DHCP server
sudo dhclient

#Temporarily restart an init script
sudo /etc/init.d/SCRIPT_NAME restart

#Temporarily stop an init script
sudo /etc/init.d/SCRIPT_NAME stop

#Set the HTTP proxy
export http_proxy=http://PROXY.DOMAIN.NAME:PORT

#Modify the information displayed after logging in
sudo vim /etc/motd.tail

#Choose the input method for X Window
im-switch -c

#Convert the file name from GBK to UTF8
convmv -r -f gbk -t utf8 --notest FILE_NAME

#Convert the file content from GBK to UTF8
iconv -f gbk -t utf8 FILE_NAME

#Convert tags in '*.mp3' from GBK to UTF8
find . -name '*.mp3' -execdir mid3iconv -e GBK {} \;

#Read a long file
less FILE_NAME

#Print lines matching a pattern

grep REG_EXP FILE_NAME

#Display a list of file name. The files contain a given string.
grep -lr REG_EXP PATHNAME

#Display all '.txt' file
find . -name '*.txt'

#Create two empty files

touch file_name_1 file_name_2

#Create directory. Create parent directories as needed.
mkdir -p /tmp/a/b/c/d/e

#Change working directory to the home folder
cd

#Change working directory to the previous working directory
cd -

#Display hidden files
ls -a

#Copy directory. Preserve links, file mode, ownership, timestamps.
cp -a SOURCE_DIRECTORY DEST_DIRECTORY

#Determine file type
file FILE_NAME
#Output the last 6 lines
tail -n 6 FILE_NAME

#Copy files via SSHscp -rp FILE_NAME USERNAME@HOST:DEST_PATH

#Rename '*.rm' files to '*.rmvb' filesrename 's/.rm$/.rmvb/' *

#Change the file name to lowercaserename 'tr/A-Z/a-z/' *
#Display subdirectories in current directory
ls -d */.

#Display file number in current directory
ls . | wc -w
#Extract "*.gz" file
gunzip FILE_NAME.gz
#Extract "*.tar.gz" file
tar zxf FILE_NAME.tar.gz

#Extract "*.tar.bz2" filetar jxf FILE_NAME.tar.bz2

#Do compression
tar czf FILE_NAME.tar.gz FILE1 FILE2 FILE3
tar cjf FILE_NAME.tar.bz2 FILE1 FILE2 FILE3
#Displays a calendar
cal
cal MONTH YEAR

#Set the date and time via NTPsudo ntpdate ntp.ubuntu.com
#Poweroff your computer
sudo haltsudo shutdown -h now
   - Poweroff your computer in 23:00
sudo shutdown -h 23:00
   - Poweroff your computer after 60 minutes
sudo shutdown -h +60

#Reboot your computersudo reboot
sudo shutdown -r now
If you want some program to start up automatically, please put '.desktop' files into '~/.config/autostart'

You can configure "preferred applications" by this file "~/.local/share/applications/mimeapps.list"
#Continuously monitor the memory usage
watch -d free

#Display HTTP HEAD responsew3m -dump_head http://example.com

#Display file content with line number
nl FILE_NAME

#Eliminate Rootkit
sudo rkhunter --checkall

#Change hostnamesudo hostname new_name

#"Tasksel" group software packages into "task"s. You can select a "task" and then install all necessary software packages. It is easy to set up LAMP servers or cloud computing servers.Show all tasks

tasksel --list

Display the extended description of a task

tasksel --task-desc lamp-server

List the packages which are parts of a task

tasksel --task-packages lamp-server

Install/remove a task

gksudo tasksel

#Change Process priorityrenice NEW_PRIORITY `pgrep NAME_OF_PROCESS`

example: renice 5 `pgrep firefox`
renice -5 `pgrep wine-server`

high <------------------> low

NEW_PRIORITY = -19, -18, -17 [...] 18, 19, 20


#~/.thumbnails/ directory is a cache dir GNOME makes when you browse through your folders in nautilus.It contains thumbnail pictures of picture files you've previously looked at.You can get its total size by

du -bs ~/.thumbnails/

#You can delete the files in the .thumbnails directory that haven't been accessed for seven days, to free disk space.
find ~/.thumbnails/ -type f -atime +7 -exec rm {} \;
#Capture screen after 10 seconds
gnome-screenshot -d 10
Capture current window after 10 seconds
gnome-screenshot -wd 10

#Start GConf editor:
Press Alt+F2, type 'gconf-editor'.

#Set apt source
sudo software-properties-gtk
sudo software-properties-kde

#Display the packages which are not installed but have remained residual configdpkg -l | awk '/^rc/ {print $2}'

#Add a PPA repository:sudo add-apt-repository ppa:PPA-REPOSITORY-NAME
#Display a list of files. The files are installed from a given package.
dpkg -L PACKAGE_NAME
#Display a list of packages. The packages installed a given file.
dpkg -S FILE_NAME
#Display a list of packages. The name of packages matches given regex pattern.
apt-cache search REG_EXPRESSION

#Display a list of packages. The packages provide a given file.apt-file search FILE_NAME
#Display a list of packages. The given package depends on the list of packages.
apt-cache depends PACKAGE_NAME
#Display a list of packages. These packages depend on the given package.
apt-cache rdepends PACKAGE_NAME

#Prompt for a disk to be inserted and then add the disc to the source list.sudo apt-cdrom add
#Install the newest versions of all packages currently installed on the system.
sudo apt-get upgrade
#Delete residual package configuration files.
dpkg -l | grep ^rc | awk '{print $2}' | sudo xargs dpkg -P
#Automatically install necessary files for './configure ; make ; make install'
sudo auto-apt run ./configure

#Save the list of packages currently installed on your system.dpkg --get-selections | grep -v deinstall > SOME_FILE

Then use the file to restore packages.
dpkg --set-selections < SOME_FILE ; sudo dselect

#After running "sudo apt-get install", "*.deb" files are stored in "/var/cache/apt/archives"

You can clean this directory by:

sudo apt-get clean
#Display URL for a given package
apt-get -qq --print-uris install PACKAGE_NAME

#Display some statistics about the apt cache
apt-cache stats

#Display all package name
apt-cache pkgnames

#Display some information of a given packageapt-cache show PACKAGE_NAME



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